Wednesday, 27 January 2016

Thomas Hobbes

Early Life
Thomas Hobbes was a British Philosopher who born in England in 1588 AC and died in 1679 AC. Hobbes was sent to school at West port., then to a private school, and finally, at 15 to Magdalene Hall, Oxford where he gave most of his time to travel and study of maps. Upon his graduation in 1608. Hobbes became a private tutor to William Cavendish, afterwards 2nd earl of Devon shire, and so began a lifelong connection with the Cavendish family, he grew very fond of his pupil, who was only a little younger than himself. In 160 Hobbes visited France and Italy with his pupil. There he probably found that the Aristotelian philosophy that he had been taught at oxford was beginning to disintegrate before the discoveries of Galileo, who formulated the laws of planetary motion. On returning home he decided to make himself a traditional scholar. He wrote ‘’ leviathan’’ (the title of Hobbes book that means the huge sea mammal’’. It is an important document on social contract theory) in 1651 AC. During the lifetime of Thomas Hobbes, his county was politically unstable and therefore, he wanted to give the concept of an absolute government. So he presented the social contract theory of origin of state.


Niccolo Machiavelli

His life
Niccolo Machiavelli born in Florence on May 3, 1469 and expired in 1527. He was an Italian historian, Statesman and political philosopher who is very popular because of his thoughts gull of cunning and duplicity.
Machiavelli joined government services as a clerk and rose to prominence when the Florentine Republic was proclaimed in 1498. He was secretary of the ten man council that conducted the diplomatic negotiations and supervised the military operations of the republic, and his duties included missions to the French king (1504, 1510-1511), the Holy See (1506), and the German Emperor (1507-1508). During his diplomatic missions within Italy he knew many study their political tactics, particularly of Cesare Borgia, who was at that time engaged in enlarging his holdings in central Italy. From 1503 to 1506 Machiavelli reorganized the military defense of the republic of Florence. In 1523, when the Medici, a Florentine family, regained power in Florence and the republic was dissolved, he was deprived of office and imprisoned for alleged conspiracy against the Medici. Lorenzo was the last Medici ruler at that time and Machiavelli dedicated his ‘the Prince of Lorenzo. After his release he retired to his estate near Florence, Where he wrote his most important works. Despite his attempts to gain favor with the Medici rulers, he was never restored to his government position, he died in Florence on June 21, 1527.
Throughout his career Machiavelli sought to establish a state capable of resisting foreign attack. His writings are concerned with the Principles on which such a state is founded, and with the means by which they can be implemented and maintained. His book originally known as “ ALL Princhi Pay’’. i.e the Prince has world-wide fame. In his book he describes the method by which a prince can acquire and maintain political power.

Machiavellian ism, as a term has been used to describe the principles of power politics, and the type of person who uses principles in political or personal life is frequently described as a Machiavellian.
Machiavelli's View of Human Nature:-
Machiavelli analyzed human nature and in the very opening pages his 'THE PRINCE' he explains that how a standard human being ought to be and how is he in practice, there wide gulf. In the  Prince Niccolo maciavelli  presents a view of governing a state that is severely different from that of humanists of his authority determining every aspect of the state and put in effect a policy, which would serve his best interests. these interests were gaining, maintaining.

Saint Thomas Aquinas

Early Life
Thomas Aquinas ( 1225 – 1274 ) was an Italian philosopher and theologian, whose work have made him the most important figure in Scholastic philosophy and one of the leading Roman Catholic theologians.
Aquinas was born of a noble family and was educated at a monastery at the University of Naples. In 1245 Aquinas then journeyed to Paris to continue his studies. Because learners called him Dumb Ox, but Albertus Magnus (his teacher) is said to have predicted that “this ox will one day fill the world with his bellowing.’’
He began to teach at the University of Paris in 1252.In 1256 Aquinas was awarded a doctorate  in theology and appointed as professor of philosophy at the university of paris. Pope Alexander IV called him to Rome in 1259, where he acted as adviser and lecturer to the papal court.
During the 13th century, Saint Thomas Aquinas sought to reconcile Aristotelian Philosophy with Augustinian theology. Aquinas employed both reason and faith in th study of metaphysics, moral philosophy, and religion.while Aquinas accepted the existence ofGod on fiath, he offered five proofs of God’s Existence to support such a belief.
In March 1274 while traveling to the Council of Lyon, to which he had been commissioned by pope Gregory X, Aquinas fell ill.

He died on March 7. 

Thursday, 7 January 2016

Aristotle

                                                       Early  Life                                                                 


Aristotle born in 384 BC and expires in 322 BC, Aristotle, the Greek philosopher shares with Plato and Socrates the distinction of being the most famous of the ancient philosophers. Born at Stagira, in Macedonia, the son of a physician to the royal court, Aristotle moved to Athens to study at Plato's Academy. He remained there for about 20 Years, first as a student and then as a teacher. He was a famous pupil of Plato. He became tutor to Alexander the Great. In 335 BC, when Alexander became king, Aristotle returned to Athens and established his own school, the lyceum. Because much of discussion in his school took place while teachers and students were walking about the lyceum grounds, it came to be known as the peripatetic (walking and scrolling) school. He died there in 332 BC.

Aristotle is about the first regular political philosopher and his book “Politics “has worldwide fame. He presented very important political thoughts in his book. Although first book written on political thoughts is that of Plato but due to real ideologies on politics, Aristotle's efforts are more reliable and authentic. Therefore, one is justified to say that Aristotle is the father of Political science.

Aristotle Concept of origin of state

Plato's concept of ideal state was mere a theoretical scheme, which has not yet been applied. On contrary, the concept of state presented by Aristotle has logical grounds. Aristotle’s concept of the origin of state can be started from his famous quotations, “Man is a political animal, destined by nature for state life. “State exits for the sake of good life, and for the sake of life only."

Aristotle, the father of political science, says that person is a political animal and is different from the other animals because of his civilized nature or nature of going from good to better and from better to the best, Human progress and cultured status is impossible without interrelations, so, man prefers to live to live with others to get various basic needs, especially economic and racial needs, man and women, mater and slaves came together and as a result, the first institution of human civilization, family was formed. So, family is to give utility. When families increased, they made villages to solve some greater needs. Due to some other greater problems and needs, the tribes and villages united in a single and greater institution, the state. According to Aristotle, State is a magnified useful human institution comprised of different type of people where all people are welded by nature by habit and by need. In the words of Aristotle," Family is the association established by nature for the supply of man's every day wants. But when several families are united and the association aims at something more than the supply of daily needs, then come into existence the village. When several villages are united in a single community, Perfect and large enough to be merely quite self-suffering, the state comes into existence, originating in the vary needs of life and continuing  in existence for the sake of good life."

                                                      Individuals---Families---Villages---State.

The economic needs of individual may be fulfilled in his family but his full moral and rational uplift is possible only within the state. It is state that provides suitable Environment for human development.

NATURAL INSTITUTION:-

He holds that family is not imposed one or artificial institution but natural. Similarly, State is the magnified form of family therefore, state is also a natural institution. This natural institution is the logical outcome of the human need to develop his potentialities. Fosters supports Aristotle concept by saying that. It is like a nest not like a cage."

Historical/ evolutionary concept:-

Aristotle's Concept by saying that he believed in evolutionary or historical theory of the origin of state. Therefore, his approach in this connection is correct, Man as a civilized individual cannot survive without state and if he claims, then it means he homeless. He is either above or below humanity.

Happiness:-   

Aristotle is of the view that mere unity of the families into villages and of villages into a greater society or state is not the end point. After establishing a society it is must that there will be peace and development, which is impossible without happiness. A happy society on one side is to provide benefits and mental pleasures but on the other is to ensure a stable society.

Administration:-

He is of the opinion that a good family has a head who is to administer the affairs of his family. His orders are followed by the family members.in this way there is a head of the village, tribe or colony who tries to solve the problems of his subjects through his talent and capabilities. When various villages are to form a state through their unity, the same sate is in need of an administration. This administration is to control the state. This administration according to Aristotle is government. Head of that government is called sovereign or king.

Balanced collectivism:-

He is influenced of his teacher, Plato and accepts his view that human being is incomplete out of the state. A civilized man cannot live alone. He is in the need of assistance and cooperation of his other fellow being. His basic needs of life are grand which he cannot face lonely. But Aristotle like Plato does not sacrifice his individuality for the state. His approach in this connection is balanced. He says individual and state are not two different things. If there is individual, there is state and if there is state there is respect of individual. Both are the needs of each other.

State – A source of benevolence and unity:-

Aristotle holds that state is a strong source of benevolence and unity. Human survival is dependent upon benevolence and unity. Mutual unity is to mix people of different professions, tastes and qualities. They are to share their capabilities, which provide happiness to society. So, it is state, which provide unity.

Two organizations to develop sate:-

He says when state comes into being, there are two organizations. Through which try their best to develop the state i.e. moral organizations coordination, discipline love and fraternity and unity are produced. It keeps a society healthy and full of justice. Political organizations are to run the state administration; stabilize societies and provides protection to state. These political organizations are to ensure protection from the neighboring enemies. Protection of the international borders is to play a significant role in internal happiness.

Tuesday, 2 June 2015

Plato

Early life
Plato was creek philosopher who born in 428 BC in Athens, one of the most important cuty-state of Greece. Plato is one of the most creative and influential thinkers in Western thoughts. Plato belonged to an aristocratic family in the Athenian democracy. His father, Ariston, was believed to be descended from the early kings of Athens. He became a disciple of Socrates, almost the first regular philosopher. Plato witnessed the execution of Socrates be the Athenian democracy in 399 BC. Due to his fears own unsafe position, he left Athens for the time being and went to Italy and Egypt. In 387 BC Plato founded the academy in Athens, the institution often described as the first European university of knowledge. If provided a comprehensive curriculum, including such subjects as astronomy, biology, mathematics, political theory, and philosophy. The concluding years of his life were spent lecturing at the academy and writing. He died at about the age of 80 in Athens in 347 or 347 BC.
Plato is one of the most famous philosophers of ancient Greece, was the first to use the term philosophy, which means ‘’ love of knowledge’’. Plato investigated a wide range of topics. In all his writings there are only two book length works, the republic and the laws. the laws was the last thing Plato wrote, at eighty, and it was a shocking and terrifying conclusion of the totalitarian the situation they came to agreement and instituted law and government through  a sort of social contract and preached the philosophy of just. Therefore, justice in this way is something artificial and unnatural. It is through this artificial rule of justice and law that the natural selfishness of man is chained.
In simple words, glaucon defines justice as, ‘’it is the creation of fear and is an external and artificial thing.’’
Plato realizes that all theories expounded by Cephalus, Thrasymachus and glaucon, contained one common element. The one common element was that all of them treated justice as something external ‘’an accomplishment, and importation, or a convention, they have, none of them carried it into the soul or a convention, they have, none of them carried it into the soul or considered it in the place of its habitation.’’ Plato proves that justice does not depend upon a chance, convention or upon external force. It is the right condition of the human soul by the very nature of man when seen in the fullness of environment. It is in this way that Plato condemned  the position taken by Glaucon that justice is something, which is external. According to Plato, it is internal as it resides in the human soul.’’ It is now regarded as an inward grace ad its understanding is shown it to involve a study of the inner man.’’ It is, therefore, natural and no artificial. It is therefore, not born of fear of the weak but of the longing of the human soul to do a duty according to its nature.
Simply, Plato says that justice is natural and he believes that state is like a loving organism while individuals are its organs, pain to any individual will suffer the whole body. Therefore, it is justice to look after individuals in the best way. It shall make state strong.
Features of the concept of justice
A unique thing in Plato's political philosophy is his special emphasis on his concept of justice, Plato has based his ideal state on justice and the theory  is the crown of his book, ‘’THE REPUBLIC’’. Theory of justice is the vital part of his philosophy and it is his alone thought which was practiced and is still studied by the succeeding generations and students of politics with keen interest. His theory and of justice is eternal while many other thoughts are Utopians. Plato says that justice is the fundamental and natural right of the human beings. The basic stimulant behind this theory was the moral decay and degradation of the Greek Athens that compelled Plato to base his ideal state on the concept of justice for injustice was the main cause of the fall of Athens.
Plato in his thoughts gives very important place to justice. He used the Greek work ‘’dikaisyne’’ for justice, which comes very near to the work ‘morality’ or ‘righteousness’, it properly includes within it the whole duty of man. It also covers the whole field of the individual’s conduct in so far as it affects others. Individually’’ justice is a ‘human virtue’ that makes a man self-consistent and good: socially, justice is a social consciousness that makes a society internally harmonious and good.’’
Plato contended that justice is the quality of soul. Plato  was highly dissatisfied with the degenerating moral conditions in Athens. The Athenian democracy was going to ruin and was ultimately responsible for Socrates death. Plato sensed that justice is the only remedy of saving Athens from decay and ruin. Plato was anxious about political unrest, excessive individualism and selfishness. His anxiety resulted his political views in the form of the construction of an ideal society in which ‘’ justice’’ reigned supreme, since Plato found in justice fundamental principal of well-order society.
Plato’s concept of justice has the following features:
Non-interference: Human organism according to Plato contains three elements-Reason, spirit and appetite. An individual is just when each part of his or her soul performs its functions without interfering with those of other elements. For example the reason should  rule on behalf of the entire soul with wisdom and forethought. The element of spirit will sub-ordinate itself to the rule of reason. Those two elements are brought into harmony by combination of mental and bodily training. They are set in command over the appetites which form the greater part of man’s soul.therefore, the reason and spirit have to control these appetites, which are likely to grow on the bodily pleasures. These appetites should not be allowed, to enclave the other elements and usurp the dominion to which they have no right. When all the three agree that among them the reason alone should rule, there is justice within the individual. According to Plato, it is justice that one should concentrate on his own duties and not to interfere in the spheres and duties of others. According to Plato, it is justice that  should concentrate on his own duties and not to interfere in the spheres and duties of others. According to Plato, justice is simply the will to fulfill the duties of one’s station and not to meddle with the duties of another station, and its habitation is, therefore, in the mind of every citizen who does his duties in his appointed place. It is the original principle, Laid down at the foundation of the state. ‘’ that one man should practice one thing only and that the thing to which his nature was best adopted’’. True justice to Plato, therefore, consists in the principle of non-interference. In Plato theory of justice, the concept of non-interference is the very base of justice. Here he believes in individual’s liberty and independence of his fellow beings. It will enable people to utilize their potentials efficiently.
Functional specialization:  The republic, Plato’s book, argues that justice in the soul is linked to justice in the city. Both soul and city have three parts: a desiring part; a spirited part ( something like the will ); and a rational part. Justice involves each part carrying out its own proper function. Plato argues that this means that the two non-rational parts must be ruled be the rational part. Far from being a mere analogy, the relation classes in the city must be ruled by the highest  class, the philosophers. They alone can use their reason to acquire knowledge of the forms. Pythagorean philosophy of the Pre-Platonic age and some of his contemporaries divided human nature in three sections i.e  reasons, courage and appetite. Plato seems influenced of these views and he also believed in transnational social set-corresponding to these three elements in human nature there are three classes in the social organism-philosopher class or the ruling class which is the representative of reason; auxiliaries a class of warriors and defenders of the country is the representative of spirit; and the appetite instinct of the community which consists of farmers, artisans and are the lowest rung of the ladder. Simply, Plato holds that the society should be classified into three functional specialization ( Classes ) i.e. ruling class, military class and professional class. All the three classes should perform separate specialized functions. He also says that one person should perform one function and one should not interfere in the functions of others that is noninterference. Plato asserts that functional specialization demands from every social class to specialize itself in the station of life allotted to it  Plato  therefore, engineered and educational scheme that was to produce all the three required classes necessary for his ideal state. Formation of the classes was a spontaneous output of his educational scheme.
Geographical Division: In a wide spread state, it is impossible for a philosopher king to maintain justice. Therefore, state much be divided in various geographical units with a separate subordinate executive. So, it is necessary to divide the state in various units for smooth administration of justice. The subordinate executive will thus be in position to extend philosopher’s rule and state justice to far-plunged areas. Without geographical division, central authority will not be in position to provide speedy justice to all. Therefore, such states will ultimately destroy because justice is the founding stone.
Compensation according to ability and capability: Plato says it is justice to compensate every individual according to his/her ability and capability. The most intelligent and learned calls should rule the country and physically strong and average educated should  defend the state. A philosopher reaches the apex of philosophical knowledge that distinguishes him from his other fellow beings, so, it is justice to give him sovereign powers in the state. Disables and handicapped should not be ignored. For achieving these goals, he expounded the theory of communism.
Sexual Equality: Plato says both the sexes are equal and state should treat them equally. If a dog can watch then a bitch can also watch. Female must not be mere the decorating peace but her potential must be utilized for the uplift of state. Justice requires that equal opportunities of education and job be provided to both the sexes. It is justice to avoid discrimination on the basis of sex.
Mutual Cooperation: Justice is based on mutual assistance and happy style of life. It is the responsibility of all citizens to pay due attention to his work. It will intensify unity and all affairs will be justice and all type of differences may be ended by pacific means. Plato holds that a balanced society is possible only if there is mutual cooperation among the three classes of the state. State integration and development demands mutual cooperation and close interrelation.
Anti individualism: according to Plato justice is a self-seeking thing. Plato says detachment of an individual from the society is severe resistance in the course of justice. One should extend full help and assistance, in reverse ne will be served. He should try his best to fulfill other’s needs and in response his needs will be honestly work for others and consequently, other will work for resultant justice. Plato gives smile to state and its individuals similarly; an individual without state and fellow beings cannot remain survives or at least civilized. He says that individuals out of the state are nothing, and individuals must give all possible server of justice. The grand total of the people from a huge body in the form of state. So, a state is a gigantic individual and a person out of a state is nothing. This is called collectivism and collectivism is another base of his concept of the justice.
Justice is natural: Plato discards and concept of artificial or external justice but emphasizes on natural justice. He denies any artificial law of government for impartial guarantee and application of justice and believes in a natural justice (natural law of justice ) free of partially and bias.
Criticism/attacks on Plato’s justice:
Platonic concept of justice is the only practical item in his philosophy. According to Lawrence C. Wanlass in his book, Gatails history of political thoughts, Plato’s concept of justice is the crown of his political thoughts. It is the only theory that is still utilized by the succeeding generations and that is successfully followed by them. All his other theories are mere Utopians. Although he is an idealist but his theory of justice reflects realism. This theory has some critical aspects.
Vague theory: Plato himself is confused about the concept of justice, in one side, he stresses upon the non-interference while on the other hand, advises mutual cooperation and interrelation. On one side, he provides for sexual equality while on other hand, the real position of woman in his ideal state is not more than breeding machinery and female is more a mating partner. He is not clear and straight. There is no sound inter-link in various components of his thoughts and different ideologies are mutually contradictory.
Non-interference: It is not possible for a government not to interfere  in people activities. Government enacts and executes various rules and regulations for individuals. Individuals are accountable before their government. If there is non-interference and individuals are given extreme and uncontrolled autonomy, the very need of government  and state shall die and such institutions become useless. Strange that Plato also believes and state communism i.e state interference in maximum aspects of life. So, his theory of noninterference is not more than a faction and a source of confusion. His concept of collectivism means interference in human life. So, collectivism or communism and non-interference are mutually contradictory concepts. There is conflict in his thoughts.
Geographical division: It is unjust to divide a widespread state in various units only for smooth maintenance of justice. It will disintegrate a state into various autonomous sub-states and the centralized control of the Platonic philosopher king shall cease, geographical division is hazardous for state integrity and solidarity.
Ruling of the philosopher king: The idea of communism as expounded by Plato is also against the concept of natural justice. The two classes i.e guardians and military have been deprived of the right of personal property and family life. Although these two classes sacrifice important portion of their lives for getting the required qualifications. This is further injustice that communism is not on the entire society but on the two classes that further irritates and justice are mutually contradictory.
Disables: Plato in his philosophy advises that the disables and handicapped should be treated and if their disability is nor removed after a complete treatment, the  should be killed for they are burden on the society. Such and attitude of such a grand philosopher himself kills his own theory of justice.

Government law: Plato denies any sort of government or artificial law for the application and maintenance of justice. But in modern states an important organ of government, the judiciary, ensures and protects justice. Plato is also unclear and  and confused to say that state has no concern with justice while on the other hand he divides state for the smooth administration of justice.

Monday, 24 December 2012

Maulana Abu Ala Maududi

Maulana Abu Ala Maududi was born on September 25, 1903 in Aurangabad, a well-known town in the former princely state of Hyderabad, Deccan. He was the direct descendant of Khwaja Qutubuddin Maudood Chishti, whose teachings reached Indo-Pakistan subcontinent through his well-known disciple Khwaja Moinuddin of Ajmer. Maududi’s father Syed Ahmad Hasan Maududi was an advocate by profession. He practiced in Meerut and then shifted to Hyderabad, Deccan. He was educated at Aligarh but in later life was much disgusted with the British Imperialism and western culture. He even gave up his legal profession since he found it contrary to his aim of life. Because of his abhorrence for the English way of life in stead of sending his child to the English schools employed tutors to teach him at home, among all classical subjects, the English language and literature, modern disciplines and Arabic, Persian and Urdu languages.
In 1920 his father passed away. The same year he joined the weekly Medinah of Bijnore (U.P.) and then became the editor of Taj of Jabalpore even before he completed his 17th year. Later he shifted to Delhi and joined the weekly Muslim and thereafter became the editor of the daily al-Jamiat, Delhi, which was an outspoken Muslim newspaper representing Islamic viewpoint and bitterly opposed to the British rule as well as Hindu domination. Under his editorship it became the leading newspaper of the Muslims of India. However, he left al-Jamiat when the organizer party behind it showed a preference for the viewpoint of the Indian National Congress. In 1932 he started his own Journal, Tarjuman al-Quran that soon became very popular among the Muslims of the subcontinent — guiding and inspiring them in every phase of their national existence. Dr. Muhammad Iqbal who was one of the earliest subscribers to Tarjuman al-Quran and held Maulana Maududi in highest esteem sought his cooperation in the task of reconstruction and development of Islamic jurisprudence. After an exchange of views, Dr. Iqbal also invited him to come over to Punjab.
Maududi has written over 120 books and pamphlets and made over 1000 speeches and press statements of, which about 700 are available on record. During 1920-28 he translated four books one from Arabic and the rest were from English. In 1930, his first major and monumental work was Al-Jihad fil Islam, which was highly appreciated by not less than a sage and poet-philosopher, Dr. Iqbal. Al-Jihad fil Islam is an excellent treatise on the Islamic law of war and peace. His discourses on Islam (Khutabat), Islam main Ibadat ka Tasawwur, Masla-e-Jabr-o-Qadr (The Problem of Free Will and Determination), Sunnat ki Aaeena Hasiyat, Tanqeehat were immensely applauded. His Tafhimat explains into rational way the concepts of Islam. Several editions of Purdah (veil), Haqooq-e-Zojain (Rights and Duties of Married Partners), have been published so far as these are highly popular works among the people. One of the most popular books he wrote is Towards Understanding Islam which is a concise and lucid introduction of Islam expounding the fundamentals of beliefs together with the logic and rationale of the path of Islam. However his main and memorable contribution is translation and commentary of the Holy Quran entitled as ‘Tafhim al-Quran’ in six volumes. He took almost 30 years to complete this work. This tafseer has made a tremendous and far-reaching impact on the contemporary Islamic thinking all over the world. His writings revealed his erudition and scholarship, a deep perception and profoundness of the teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. His literature imbued with a critical analysis of the western thought and history has provided fresh avenues of thoughts, newer dimensions of moral excellence and dynamic concept of spiritualism. His books have been translated into the major languages of the world like Arabic, English, French, German, Turkish, Persian, Hindi, Swahili, Tamil, Bengali etc.
He criticized and showed the hollowness of various ideologies, which had begun to spoil the minds and hearts of the Muslims. Through his journal he appealed to the Muslim intelligentsia to ponder over the real call of Islam and if convinced, concentrate their energies on establishing the Islamic way of life not only in their personal life as individuals but also in their political, economic, social and cultural domains. For that purpose Maududi established an academic and research centre Dar al-Islam in collaboration with Allama Iqbal. The main task was to train competent scholars for producing works of outstanding quality on Islam, to launch a full-fledged movement on the pattern of the earliest Caliphate, and above all to carry out the reconstruction of Islamic thought.
Maulana Maududi started taking interest in politics around 1920 and took part in the Khilafat Movement and became associated with the tahrik-i-hijrat. In 1940 he launched a new organization under the name of Jamaat-i-Islami. He was elected First Ameer of Jamaat and retained this portfolio till 1972 which he left due to his deteriorating health. He was the greatest Muslim critic of the Congress. He wrote a series of articles, which were widely circulated and later incorporated in a book, Musalman aur maujooda siyasi kashmakash. He vehemently criticized and condemned all the schemes and programs of the Congress aimed to absorb the Muslims of the subcontinent into a common nationhood and lead them astray from the path of Islam. Maulana Maududi analyzed and showed the errors of judgement of Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madni, one of the topmost scholars of Deoband. The Quaid-i-Azam understood the position of the Jamaat and status of Abul Ala Maududi very well. When he was approached to join the Jamaat-e-Islami, he said that there was no conflict between the Jamaat and the League; the one was working for a higher ideal and the other to realize the pressing immediate which, if lost would make the work of the Jamaat impossible.
After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, there were a series of Maulana’s lectures on different systems of Islam, which were broadcast from Radio Pakistan, Lahore. These lectures commenced in January 1948 and continued up to July 6, 1948. From the outset he kept on reminding the leadership to fulfill the promises made to the nation for establishing an Islamic order, and for this purpose a declaration of the objectives of the state in the legal and constitutional form was of paramount importance. In short, he mobilized his efforts on the establishment of a truly Islamic State and society in the country. For that matter he opposed and criticized the policies pursued by the successive governments of Pakistan. As a result he was arrested time and again and put into jail for long periods. It was due to the efforts of Maulana Maududi and his Jamaat that the Objectives Resolution was passed on March 12, 1949. It was also in accord with the Jamaat’s demand that the Objectives Resolution was incorporated in the Constitution as Preamble.
He opposed the Qadiani movement and in his book Qadiani problem he wrote that Qadianis are not Muslims and they have to be treated as a minority. In 1953 when he was sentenced to death by the martial law authorities on the charge of writing a seditious pamphlet on the Qadiani problem, he didn’t file any petition for mercy and cheerfully accepted the punishment. His firmness and faith in Allah astonished the government and his opponents and critics but due to foreign pressure and strong public strain and stress, government was forced to reduce it to life imprisonment and at length it was completely canceled.
Maulana Maududi toured a lot of countries during the years 1956-1974. These tours enabled the Muslims of those countries to become acquainted with him personally and appreciate his dynamic knowledge and qualities. He lectured in Cairo, Damascus, Amman, Makkah, Jeddah, Kuwait, Rebat, Istanbul, London, New York and Toronto. He also made study tours of Saudi Arabia, Jordon (including Jerusalem), Syria and Egypt in order to probe the geographical and historical phenomena of the places mentioned in the Holy Quran. Maulana was also the member of the Foundation Committee of the Rabitah al-Alam al-Islami, Makkah and the Academy of Research on Islamic Law, Madinah. Maulana Maududi was, indeed, a symbol of Islamic renaissance and an intellectual giant of the modern times. He participated in numerous Muslim international conferences, lectured in the principles cities of most of the Muslim countries and had contacts with Muslim leaders in all parts of the Muslim world.
In April 1979, Maulana Abul Ala Maududi had kidney problem, which worsened with the passage of time, and when he also suffered from heart disease, he had to leave for United States for treatment, where his son had also been practicing as a medical specialist. Following a few surgical operations he died on 22nd September 1979, at the age of 76. His funeral ceremony was held in Buffalo but later he was buried at his residence Ichhra in Lahore, When his dead body arrived at Lahore, the road was jam-packed with swarming people up to more than four miles.

Allama Iqbal

Allama Iqbal, great poet-philosopher and active political leader, was born at Sialkot, Punjab, in 1877. He descended from a family of Kashmiri Brahmins, who had embraced Islam about 300 years earlier.
Iqbal received his early education in the traditional maktab. Later he joined the Sialkot Mission School, from where he passed his matriculation examination. In 1897, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts Degree from Government College, Lahore. Two years later, he secured his Masters Degree and was appointed in the Oriental College, Lahore, as a lecturer of history, philosophy and English. He later proceeded to Europe for higher studies. Having obtained a degree at Cambridge, he secured his doctorate at Munich and finally qualified as a barrister.
He returned to India in 1908. Besides teaching and practicing law, Iqbal continued to write poetry. He resigned from government service in 1911 and took up the task of propagating individual thinking among the Muslims through his poetry.
By 1928, his reputation as a great Muslim philosopher was solidly established and he was invited to deliver lectures at Hyderabad, Aligarh and Madras. These series of lectures were later published as a book “The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam”. In 1930, Iqbal was invited to preside over the open session of the Muslim League at Allahabad. In his historic Allahabad Address, Iqbal visualized an independent and sovereign state for the Muslims of North-Western India. In 1932, Iqbal came to England as a Muslim delegate to the Third Round Table Conference.
In later years, when the Quaid had left India and was residing in England, Allama Iqbal wrote to him conveying to him his personal views on political problems and state of affairs of the Indian Muslims, and also persuading him to come back. These letters are dated from June 1936 to November 1937. This series of correspondence is now a part of important historic documents concerning Pakistan’s struggle for freedom.
On April 21, 1938, the great Muslim poet-philosopher and champion of the Muslim cause, passed away. He lies buried next to the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore.