Saturday, 19 May 2012

Pre-Independence History

In the Era of colonialism that was due to the immense wealth of Indo-Pakistan which aroused a desire in the minds of the Englishmen to trade with the East. A body of English merchants applied to Queen Elizabeth for a charter granting then right of the trading in the East. In 1660, Queen granted them under the title “The Governor and company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies’’. This company is generally known as the East India Company.
In 1608, Mughal Emperor, Jehangir granted the English permission to settle at Surat but the Portuguese ‘influence at the Mughal court was so strong that this concession was repealed. However the company continued to carry on the work. In 1612,the East India Company under the command of Thomas Best succeeded in defeating a Portuguese fleet at surat.This victory enhanced the prestige of the English. As a result, the Mughal emperor allowed the English to establish a permanent factory at Surat.In 1615, the naval victory over Portuguese was followed by the arrival of Sir Thomas Roe as ambassador of the James-I to the Mughal court English prospects were much improved by an English surgeon named Gabriel Boughton who worked as court physicians with the Mughal Subedar of Bengal, Sultan Shuja. As a price of service rendered to the Mughal subedar, he optioned from him in a licensed for the company to trade in the province in 1650.
The English set up a factory in Hugli in 1651 and soon after Patna and Qasim Bazar.The Company’s policy in indo Pakistan went under a change during the last quarter of the 17th century’s peace full trading body was transformed into a power to establish its own position in view of the political disorder in the country. Thus the company had decided to adopt a new policy.
Following their policy slowly and gradually the British started occupying different stats one by one.
On 23rd June 1757 battle was fought between nawab’s army commanded by Jafar and Siraj ud dullah, Mir Jaffar was backed by English, defeated Siraj ud dullah who was backed by the French. Conspiracy of Mir Jafar resulted in the loss of the independence of Bengal. The victory at Plessey gave the battle of Buxar the English got supremacy in Indo-Pakistan by controlling Bihar and Orissa and due to this their prestige was greatly enhanced. Mir Qasim formed a confederacy with Nawab’s Shuja-ud-Dullah and the emperor Shah Alam II. They made a common cause against the English and attacked Patna but were repulsed by English General, Major Hector Munro in 1964.
Immediately after the outbreak of war with Mir Qasim, the English once again placed Mir Jafar on the throne and obtained certain privileges from him. When Mir Jafar died in February, 1765, his son Nizam ud Dullah was installed on the throne on the condition that the entire management of administration should be left in the hands of the minister nominated by English and could not be dismissed without their approval. Thus the supreme control over the administration passed into the hands of the English, while the Nawab became a puppet.
In 1789, Lord Cornwallis formed a triple alliance against Tipu Sultan and ultimately defeated Tipu sultan and Bangalore fill into the hands of the enemy. The Sultan took shelter in Saringapatam. He did not loss his courage and send envoys to Arabia, Kabul, Constrantipol and France for help against the British. When Wellesley, the Governor General of India came to know of the Sultan’s activities, he became hostile to him. He declared war against him in February, 1799.The Sultan fought gallantly but without success. He died a soldier’s death in defense of his country. These events gave opportunity to the British to deep root themselves in the Indian sub-continent. After the war of independence in 1857, the British completely gained political control of the region.
The sepoy Rebellion also known as the Indian war of Independence erupted in 1857 and became a widespread revolt against British rule. After the British quelled the rebellion in 1858, they immediately took steps to maintain control. The British government officially abolished the Mughal Empire and exiled Muhammad bahadur shah to Burma. In addition, the British government transferred authority from the English east India Company to the British crown, establishing direct imperial rule in India. To help consolidate control the British initiated a series of educational, administrative, and political processes between 1858 and 1900. English was introduced as the official language. 

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