Aristotle born in 384 BC and expires in 322 BC, Aristotle, the Greek philosopher shares with Plato and Socrates the distinction of being the most famous of the ancient philosophers. Born at Stagira, in Macedonia, the son of a physician to the royal court, Aristotle moved to Athens to study at Plato's Academy. He remained there for about 20 Years, first as a student and then as a teacher. He was a famous pupil of Plato. He became tutor to Alexander the Great. In 335 BC, when Alexander became king, Aristotle returned to Athens and established his own school, the lyceum. Because much of discussion in his school took place while teachers and students were walking about the lyceum grounds, it came to be known as the peripatetic (walking and scrolling) school. He died there in 332 BC.
Aristotle is about the first regular political philosopher and his book “Politics “has worldwide fame. He presented very important political thoughts in his book. Although first book written on political thoughts is that of Plato but due to real ideologies on politics, Aristotle's efforts are more reliable and authentic. Therefore, one is justified to say that Aristotle is the father of Political science.
Aristotle Concept of origin of state
Plato's concept of ideal state was mere a theoretical scheme, which has not yet been applied. On contrary, the concept of state presented by Aristotle has logical grounds. Aristotle’s concept of the origin of state can be started from his famous quotations, “Man is a political animal, destined by nature for state life. “State exits for the sake of good life, and for the sake of life only."
Aristotle, the father of political science, says that person is a political animal and is different from the other animals because of his civilized nature or nature of going from good to better and from better to the best, Human progress and cultured status is impossible without interrelations, so, man prefers to live to live with others to get various basic needs, especially economic and racial needs, man and women, mater and slaves came together and as a result, the first institution of human civilization, family was formed. So, family is to give utility. When families increased, they made villages to solve some greater needs. Due to some other greater problems and needs, the tribes and villages united in a single and greater institution, the state. According to Aristotle, State is a magnified useful human institution comprised of different type of people where all people are welded by nature by habit and by need. In the words of Aristotle," Family is the association established by nature for the supply of man's every day wants. But when several families are united and the association aims at something more than the supply of daily needs, then come into existence the village. When several villages are united in a single community, Perfect and large enough to be merely quite self-suffering, the state comes into existence, originating in the vary needs of life and continuing in existence for the sake of good life."
The economic needs of individual may be fulfilled in his family but his full moral and rational uplift is possible only within the state. It is state that provides suitable Environment for human development.
He holds that family is not imposed one or artificial institution but natural. Similarly, State is the magnified form of family therefore, state is also a natural institution. This natural institution is the logical outcome of the human need to develop his potentialities. Fosters supports Aristotle concept by saying that. It is like a nest not like a cage."
Historical/ evolutionary concept:-
Aristotle's Concept by saying that he believed in evolutionary or historical theory of the origin of state. Therefore, his approach in this connection is correct, Man as a civilized individual cannot survive without state and if he claims, then it means he homeless. He is either above or below humanity.
Aristotle is of the view that mere unity of the families into villages and of villages into a greater society or state is not the end point. After establishing a society it is must that there will be peace and development, which is impossible without happiness. A happy society on one side is to provide benefits and mental pleasures but on the other is to ensure a stable society.
He is of the opinion that a good family has a head who is to administer the affairs of his family. His orders are followed by the family members.in this way there is a head of the village, tribe or colony who tries to solve the problems of his subjects through his talent and capabilities. When various villages are to form a state through their unity, the same sate is in need of an administration. This administration is to control the state. This administration according to Aristotle is government. Head of that government is called sovereign or king.
He is influenced of his teacher, Plato and accepts his view that human being is incomplete out of the state. A civilized man cannot live alone. He is in the need of assistance and cooperation of his other fellow being. His basic needs of life are grand which he cannot face lonely. But Aristotle like Plato does not sacrifice his individuality for the state. His approach in this connection is balanced. He says individual and state are not two different things. If there is individual, there is state and if there is state there is respect of individual. Both are the needs of each other.
State – A source of benevolence and unity:-
Aristotle holds that state is a strong source of benevolence and unity. Human survival is dependent upon benevolence and unity. Mutual unity is to mix people of different professions, tastes and qualities. They are to share their capabilities, which provide happiness to society. So, it is state, which provide unity.
Two organizations to develop sate:-
He says when state comes into being, there are two organizations. Through which try their best to develop the state i.e. moral organizations coordination, discipline love and fraternity and unity are produced. It keeps a society healthy and full of justice. Political organizations are to run the state administration; stabilize societies and provides protection to state. These political organizations are to ensure protection from the neighboring enemies. Protection of the international borders is to play a significant role in internal happiness.